17 AHMP The Fatal Flaws of Benedict Arnold
My question today is simple: What fatal flaws of Benedict Arnold’s personality contributed to his decision to transform from an ardent patriot into our country’s most well-known traitor? We will explore this question as we travel with him from his youth through the Continental Army’s 1775 invasion of Canada in this episode.
A long favored topic amongst mental health professionals is whether someone can truly make a significant change during the course of treatment. It is certain that the individual we are talking about today, Benedict Arnold, was never in therapy. In fact, it wasn’t even available to him. Although topics such as the soul, psyche, and the mind have long been discussed by philosophers from Plato and Aristotle to Locke and Descartes, and Founder Benjamin Rush advocated humane treatment for the mentally ill in America’s first textbook of psychiatry: Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon Diseases of the Mind, individual analysis in a clinical setting didn’t really get going until the late 1800’s with the work of Freud and others. Moreover, people with certain personality features or types, such as are evident in individuals similar to Benedict Arnold, are fairly unlikely to make significant change. In fact, they are ego-syntonic. Meaning that they are fairly comfortable in their own skin and seeing the world through the glasses which they have been given.‘
Let’s delve into this edition’s story. You’ll get a glimpse of how Benedict Arnold’s personality traits were visible in his youth and early adulthood, and then blossomed (so to speak) and continued to evolve during his adulthood…In the next episode, we will continue to follow those traits and the resulting patterns thereof, and learn how they led to the ultimate betrayal of those around him and his country.
The name “Benedict Arnold” is synonymous with the word “traitor.” let’s step back and learn about his beginnings. Born in Norwich, Connecticut in 1741, Benedict Arnold had all the pedigrees to be one of the greatest heroes of the American Revolution. Did you know that his great-great-grandfather, William Arnold, was one of the 13 original settlers of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations? His grandfather, also named Benedict, was no slouch either. He was the first Governor of Rhode Island. His mother has been described as a woman with strength, character, and almost saintly qualities, while his father spent much of his money in local taverns. Mounting family debt, and a lack of dedication to his studies, caused his mother to remove him from a private school education which would have paved the way to a degree from Yale. Arnold sought permission to enter the provincial militia during the French and Indian War, but his mother refused. When he reached the age of 16, he was allowed to join the local militia’s plan to enter into the battle near at Fort McHenry, but his enlistment lasted only 13 days after the group learned of the French slaughter of British and colonial forces at the fort. Upon his return, Arnold found himself placed by his mother as an apprentice for her cousins Joshua and Daniel Lathrop who were apothecaries in Norwich. Arnold must have been so intoxicated by the thrill of battle that he slipped away from his apprenticeship multiple times to fight in the French and Indian War. Both his lack of focus on his studies, as well as his willingness to run away from his apprenticeship could both be thought of as examples of poor impulse control. Something which would plague Arnold throughout his life. The Lathrops were kind enough to loan the now 21 year old Benedict the money to launch his own apothecary establishment in 1762. Although he began adulthood in the fairly mundane professions of an apothecary and bookseller, he would soon leave both behind for more exciting, and risky, ventures. This is the first of many patterns we will see him repeat over and over again. He left his sister, Hannah, to manage his business, and he partnered with Adam Babcock and soon to became a successful trader in spices. This venture, including the purchase of three ships, was made possible, in no small part, because of money Arnold inherited from his father. Again, willing to engage in risk taking behavior, Arnold often captained the ships as they traded in ports from Canada to the West Indies. Such trading, of course, was severely damaged by the Sugar and Stamp Acts.
In the 1760’s, a contemporary described Arnold as having been a “general favorite with the ladies, fond of their society, and floating in the gayest circles of the day.” We will learn in the next episode that the ladies described herein perfectly matched his second wife. In 1767, Benedict Arnold married the woman described as his first love Margaret Mansfield. Margaret was daughter of Samuel Mansfield who was the High Sheriff of the county. Like his mother, Margaret was described as “attractive in person, gentle and graceful in manner, amiable and affectionate in disposition, and of devoted piety.” (Arnold, 27: Miss Caulkin’s History of Norwich 413) Although I might be a bit of a cynic, but I cannot help wondering if Arnold first focused his attention on Margaret Mansfield because she was the High Sheriff’s daughter. After all, might the sheriff be just a bit more inclined to turn a blind eye to a bit of smuggling, if the smuggler was his son-in-law?
The now married Arnold did not take kindly to the infringements upon his personal liberty, much less his pocket book, caused by the Sugar Act and could not understand the passivity of his fellow colonists.
Following the Boston Massacre, Arnold wrote the following to B. Douglas, Esq. of New Haven, on June, 9, 1768: “Sir I am now in a Corner of the World you can expect no News of Consequence – Was very much shocked the other Day on hearing accounts of the most Cruel Wanton & Murders committed in Boston by the Soldiers. Good God are the Americans all and tamely giving up their Liberties or are they all turned Philosophers they don t take imediate Vengeance on such Miscreants; I am afraid of the latter and that shall all soon see ourselves as poor and much oppressed as ever heathen Philosopher was.”
As his outrage continued, Arnold became a member, and soon led a chapter of, the Sons of Liberty. Note I used the word “outraged.” You can add poor anger management skills or volatility to the list of Arnold’s many issues. This is not the last time that you will hear of Arnold’s anger impacting or changing the direction of his life. Like many other colonial traders, Arnold sought to circumvent the regulations and oppressive laws encompassed in the Stamp and Sugar Acts.
However, unlike others in his profession, Arnold was willing to assure his control, personal gain, or wealth to the disadvantage or injury of those him even if it mean resorting to threats or physical violence.. This was evidenced early on by his arrest and fine after an incident involving one of his sailors who had had publically accused him of smuggling. Was Benedict Arnold remorseful of his actions? Far from it! He posted the following letter in the Connecticut Gazette:
“Mr. Printer: Sir – As I was a party concerned in whipping the Informer, the other day, and unluckily out of town when the Court set, and finding the affair misrepresented much to my disadvantage and many animadversions thereon, especially in one of your last by a very fair, candid gentleman indeed, as he pretends; after he had insinuated all that malice could do, adds, that he will say nothing to prejudice the minds of the people. he is clearly seen through the Grass, but the weather is too cold for him to bite. – To satisfy the public, and in justice to myself and those concerned, I beg you’d insert in your next, the following detail of the affair.
The Informer having been a voyage with me, in which he was used with the greatest humanity, on our return was paid his wages to his full satisfaction; and informed me of his intention to leave the town that day, wished me well, and departed the town, as I imagined. – But he two days after endeavored to make information to a Custom House Officer; but it being holy time was desired to call on Monday, early on which day I heard of his intention, and gave him a little chastisement; on which he left the town; and on Wednesday returned to Mr. Beecher’s where I saw the fellow, who agreed to and signed the following acknowledgement and Oath.
‘I, Peter Boole, not having the fear of God before my Eyes, but being instigated by the Devil, did on the 24th instant, make information, or endeavor to do the same, to one of the Custome House Officers for the Port of New Haven, against Benedict Arnold, for importing contraband good, do hereby acknowledge I justly deserve a Halter for my malicious and cruel intentions. I do now solemnly swear I will never hereafter make information, directly or indirectly, or cause the same to be done against any person or persons, whatever, for importing Contraband or any other goods into this Colony, or any Port of America; and that I will immediately leave New Haven and never enter the same again. So help me God. New Haven 29th January, 1766.’
This was done precisely at 7 o’clock on which I engaged not to inform the sailors of his being in town, provided he would leave it immediately according to our agreement. Near four hours after I heard a noise in the street and a person informed me the sailors were at Mr. Beecher’s. On enquiry, I found the fellow had not left town. I then made one of the party and took him to the Whipping Post, where he received near forty lashes with a small cord, and was conducted out of town; since which on his return, the affair was submitted to Col. David Wooster and Mr. Enos Allend, (Gentlemen of reputed good judgement and understanding,) who were of opinion that the fellow was not whipped too much, and gave him 50s. damages only. Query – Is it good policy; or would so great a number people, in any trading town on the Continent, (New Haven excepted,) vindicate, protect and caress an informer – a character particularly at this alarming time so justly odious to the Public? Every such information tends to suppress our trade, so advantageous to the Colony, and to almost every individual both here and in Great Britain, and which is nearly ruined by the late detestable stamp and other oppressive acts – acts which we have so severely felt, and so loudly complained of, and so earnestly remonstrated against, that one would imagine every sensible man would strive to encourage trade and discountenance such useless, such infamous Informers.”
By the way, the fact that Arnold chose to publicly issue that letter indicates the public acceptance, if not approval, of both smuggling and public beatings.
Soon unsatisfied with merely voicing his outrage, and filled with the memories of his military experience, Arnold was elected a Captain in the Connecticut militia, specifically the Governor’s Second Company of Foot Guards, in March, 1775. The day after the Battle of Lexington, Arnold summoned his company and proposed they marched to Boston. It is said that 40 of the 58 agreed to leave immediately. A town meeting was in progress, regarding the appropriate response to what transpired in Lexington and Concord. Rather than asking for a portion of the town’s munitions, the following is described in an 1815 biography of Arnold as what transpired in front of the home where the meeting took place: “He formed the company in front of the house, and proceeded at once to summary measures. He sent in word to the selectmen, that unless the key of the powder-house was delivered up within five minutes, he would give orders to his men to break open the building and help themselves to the contents. That threat produced exactly the effect he desired. The key was surrendered, and a sufficient supply of powder was dealt out.” Did I mention that Arnold had issues including impulse control and grandiose thinking?
Let’s stop a moment and recap the personality issues that have surfaced so far. They would include:
Poor impulse control
Anger management issues
Willingness to engage in significant risk taking behavior
Assuring personal gain to the detriment of those around him.
Not exactly the boy next door, is he? But wait, we have just begun this story….
Arnold’s military reputation grew quickly after he and his men marched to Boston and assisted with the Siege of Boston. It should be noted that he convinced his men to proceed over objections from local military leaders such as Masonic Lodge founder David Wooster. This can be seen as yet another example of Arnold’s lack of impulse control, or at the very least taking matters into his own hands. Not satisfied with merely leading a militia group, Arnold wanted more. Not just a bit more, but he wanted to grab the brass ring, as they say. This, by the way, is another flaw that would repeatedly cause him trouble throughout the war. While on his march to Cambridge, He learned of a plan being discussed by the legislature of Connecticut to seize the fort at Ticonderoga. Upon his arrival in Cambridge, he proposed the same plan to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety that he should immediately be dispatched to attack the Fort Ticonderoga in New York in order to capture a much needed stockpile of munitions, of both powder and artillery, known to be at the fort. Imagine! That was a fairly brazen plan for colonists who were more than a year away from issuing the Declaration of Independence. It was also fairly grandiose to imagine that a conglomeration of colonial militia groups could attack and conquer a British held fortification. Nonetheless, his arguments were persuasive, and he was given permission to move forward with his plan. The Massachusetts Committee of Safety gave him the title of “Colonel,” and given 400 men and £100 worth of munitions.
Although those from Massachusetts dubbed Arnold’s mission as secret, the Connecticut legislature had also been persuaded to send troops to capture the fort. Just whom was leading their charge to Fort Ticonderoga? None other than Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys who numbered approximately 270 men, and who had been given money for the venture, and were already on their way. In fact, they were 50 miles ahead of him. Although his men set out quickly, Arnold himself rode through the night to Bennington, Vermont to take charge of the matter. He wanted the full credit for taking control of the poorly defended installation. Arnold found Allen and his men in Vermont. In another glimmer of the depth of Arnold’s temper….he described the boys as “wild people.” He and Allen jockeyed for power and glory, but Allen’s men refused to serve under Arnold. This would be the first of a series of battles for power that Arnold engaged in with other military commanders. It seems that having a sizeable ego was an issue for Arnold as well. Ego was an issue for Allen too. Eventually, Allen and Arnold reached a compromise to uneasily share the leadership. As could be predicted, they resumed their squabble after their success at Fort Ticonderoga.
As time went on, Arnold sought to be the dominant leader, and Allen’s forces began to dwindled. Militia members had sworn no oath to any particular length of service. Eventually, some of those Green Mountain Boys decided it was time to go home and get back to their families and work as well. As Allen faded from the forefront, and he returned home with his Green Mountain Boys on May 27th, Benedict Arnold declared that Allen “”had entirely given up command.”
The practical nature of the reduction in forces was not Arnold’s focus, however. He chose to attribute to Allen’s poor leadership skills. He also sought to put a positive spin on the whole matter with those who had authorized the campaign. Not only would ego be an issue for Arnold, but his voracity was questionable as well. He wrote to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety that: “Mr. Allen’s party is decreasing, and the dispute between us subsiding. I am extremely sorry matters have not been transacted with more prudence and judgment. I have done everything in my power, and put up with many insults to preserve peace and serve the public. I hope soon to be properly released from this troublesome business, that some more proper person may be appointed in my room.”
Arnold and a small group of men soon branched out from Fort Ticonderoga and took control of nearby Fort Crown Point. The following is an entry from Arnold’s regimental memorandum book dated June 11th. The coarse and confrontive nature of the entry will exemplify again why George Washington described Arnold as his “Fighting General.” It also demonstrates his continued willingness to use violence in order to maintain his authority and control over others: “Went on shore early, and gave order to have the Guard doubled to prevent any mutiny or disorder. Col. Allen, Major Elmore, Easton and others attempted passing the Sloop without showing their pass, and were brought to by Capt. Sloan, and came in show and when in private discourse with Elmore intruded and insulted me. I tooke the liberty of breaking his head, and on his refusing to draw like a gentleman, he having a hanger by his side, and case of loaded Pistols in his pocket, I kicked him very heartily, and ordered him from the point immediately.” Evidentally, Arnold’s desire to physically punish those who insulted, threatened, or did not unthinkingly follow his orders had not been assuaged by that earlier fine. Additionally, his choice to “break” the head (whatever that means) of a soldier for being unwilling to engage in a duel with him paints a far different picture of Arnold than some of those who seek to portray him as an inspirational military commander or at least in a more positive light.
But control of Fort Ticonderoga was soon be taken away from Arnold. The Massachusetts Committee of Safety sent word that that their attention was focused on issues closer to home in Boston, and a concert of cooperation between the Continental Congress, and committees from Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut had resulted in the government in Connecticut taking responsibility for oversight of the fort. Consequently, Arnold was soon told he should abdicate all power to Connecticut’s Colonel Benjamin Hinman who, along with his 1000 troops, had arrived to assure continued possession of the fort. You will recall that Arnold had written them that he wished to “soon to be properly released from this troublesome business.” However, when the time for that arrived, he was not interested in relinquishing control. Instead, Arnold chose to angrily resign his commission declaring “he would not be second to any person whomsoever.” As you might imagine, this was not the first time he would resign…at least temporarily You may have also guessed that Arnold’s anger would not only cause him to be passed over for military promotions, but the resulting frustrations thereupon would fuel his poor decisions in the future.
Let’s stop again and add two items to our list of troubling personality issues or traits. The first item would center around issues related to ego including grandiose thinking and perhaps even narcissism. The second would be his willingness to physically punish and abuse those whom he wished to control.
Soon after mourning the early death of his first wife, Margaret, and most likely hungry for another battle, he promoted yet another ambitious plan to lead an invasion of Quebec. The Continental Congress did not have sufficient confidence in him to award him such a command, and instead sent Philip Schuyler and Richard Montgomery to launch an invasion into Canada. They cautioned the men to go ahead with such a plan if they found it to be “practicable and it will not be disagreeable to Canadians.” Poor weather conditions plagued this effort from the beginning. Schuyler soon had health problems, and Montgomery assumed command of the operation which began at Fort Ticonderoga and planned to march toward the poorly defended Montreal.
Meanwhile, the decision by the Congress obviously did not sit well with Arnold. Unwilling to take “no” for an answer, he pitched another, seemingly almost impossible plan directly to George Washington. Again, Washington thought of Arnold as his “fighting general” who was willing to take risks with his own life, and Washington was therefore willing to overlook Arnold’s ego and temper. He was also willing to consider Arnold’s risky plan. You might think of the good general as a bit of enabler in this circumstance. Washington would be the one to whom Arnold sought out repeatedly either to get his way or get out of trouble, until Arnold ultimately stabbed him in the back….so to speak. At any rate, Arnold turned to Washington, who commissioned him as a colonel, and gave him the manpower to invade Quebec City.
What was Arnold’s plan? He proposed to travel north along the Kennebec River through the wilderness of Maine, known as the Height of Land, which was primarily uncharted and into Quebec via the Chaudiere River. Arnold argued that he would have the element of surprise on his side.
What was Washington’s initial reaction to this plan? He must have had a number of misgivings as evidenced by the letter that Arnold received from General Horatio Gates on August 25, 1775: “I am confident you told me last night that did not intend to leave Cambridge intirely, the Express sent by your Friend returned general Schuyler Lest I should have been mistaken, I am directed By His Excellency Washington to request you to resolve to wait the return of that Express I have laid your plans before the general, who will converse with you upon it when vou next meet Your answer by the Bearer will oblige.” If you think this is the only time a commanding officer told Arnold to “hold his horses,” you would be mistaken. This is jumping ahead a bit in our story, but it is worth tying the two letters together. British General Clinton, who was well aware of Arnold’s history of risk taking and impulsively launching into battles would caution him on December 14, 1780 that he should not enter battle “unless they can be effected without the smallest danger to the safety.” His distrust of Arnold was readily apparant in this same day letter that Clinton sent to Lieutenants Colonel John Graves Simcoe and Thoms Dundas giving them permission to relieve Arnold of his command. “Sirs, In the inclosed Cover I send You a Blank Dormant commission which is only to be made use of in case of the Death, or incapacity of Brig. Genl Arnold to execute the Duties of the command which is intrusted to his direction. You are upon no Account to make know that You are possessed of such a Commission, or open the Same, except in the Casees above”
Let’s now return to Arnold’s plan to launch a second invasion into Canada.
Washington eventually placed Arnold in command of 1100 men including ten companies of musketmen, three companies of rifle men, and ten transports on which to carry them.
However, He wrote to Arnold of his continued concerns, including the safety of the troops and his desire to respect the patterns and religious practices of both the indigenous population, as well as those of the primarily Catholic Canadians, on September 14, 1775:
“Sir: You are intrusted with a Command of the utmost Consequence sequence to the Interest and Liberties of America. Upon your Conduct and Courage and that of the Officers and Soldiers detached on this Expedition, not only the Success of the present Enterprize, and your own Honour, but the Safety and Welfare of the Whole Continent may depend. I charge you, therefore, and the Officers and Soldiers, under your Command, as you value your own Safety and Honour and the Favour and Esteem of your Country, that you consider yourselves, as marching, not through an Enemy’s Country; but that of our Friends and Brethren, for such the Inhabitants of Canada, and the Indian Nations have approved themselves in this unhappy Contest between Great Britain and America. That you check by every Motive of Duty and Fear of Punishment, every Attempt to plunder or insult any of the Inhabitants of Canada. Should any American Soldier be so base and infamous as to injure any Canadian or Indian, in his Person or Property, I do most earnestly enjoin you to bring him to such severe and exemplary Punishment as the Enormity of the Crime may require.
While we are contending for our own Liberty, we should be very cautious of violating the Rights of Conscience in others, ever considering that God alone is the Judge of the Hearts of Men, and to him only in this Case, they are answerable Should it extend to Death itself it will not be disproportional to its Guilt at such a Time and in such a Cause: But I hope and trust, that the brave Men who have voluntarily engaged in this Expedition, will be governed by far different Views. that Order, Discipline and Regularity of Behaviour will be as conspicuous, as their Courage and Valour. I also give it in Charge to you to avoid all Disrespect to or Contempt of the Religion of the Country and its Ceremonies. Prudence, Policy, and a true Christian Spirit, will lead us to look with Compassion upon their Errors without insulting them. While we are contending for our own Liberty, we should be very cautious of violating the Rights of Conscience in others, ever considering that God alone is the Judge of the Hearts of Men, and to him only in this Case, they are answerable. Upon the whole, Sir, I beg you to inculcate upon the Officers and Soldiers, the Necessity of preserving the strictest Order during their March through Canada; to represent to them the Shame, Disgrace and Ruin to themselves and Country, if they should by their Conduct, turn the Hearts of our Brethren in Canada against us. And on the other Hand, the Honours and Rewards which await them, if by their Prudence and good Behaviour, they conciliate the Affections of the Canadians and Indians, to the great Interests of America, and convert those favorable Dispositions they have shewn into a lasting Union and Affection. Thus wishing you and the Officers and Soldiers under your Command, all Honour, Safety and Success, I remain Sir, etc.”
Arnold’s expedition embarked on September 19th. They sailed, with Arnold aboard the sloop Britainia. Again, Arnold’s journal of the expedition revealed him to be harsh disciplinarian and as having taken Washington’s instructions literally. Here is his entry for September 23rd: “In the morning proceeded up the river, about 6 miles, to Fort Western, where an unhappy accident happened in the evening. A number of soldiers, being in a private house, some words produced a quarrel, and one McCormick, being turned out of the house, immediately discharged his gun into the house, and shot a man through his body, of which he soon expired. McCormick was tried by a Court Martial, and received sentence of death; but denied the crime till he was brought to the place of execution, when he confessed the crime. But for some reasons he was reprieved till the pleasure of General Washington could be known.”
Arnold’s journal also documented the difficult conditions with travel of only nine, seven, five, or sometimes only a single mile in one day. In addition, the weather proved daunting. On October 3rd, Arnold recorded the following: “At 7 o’clock in the evening, a little below Norridgewalk, my battoe filled with water, going up the falls. Here I lost my kettle, butter and sugar, a loss not to be replaced here.” As many became ill, and provisions and supplies were lost, he wrote on Octobe 23rd: “a council was held, in which it was resolved that a captain, with 50 men, should march with all despatch by land to Chaudiere pond, and that the sick of my division and Captain Morgan’s, should return back to Cambridge. At this place the stream is very rapid, in passing which, five or six battoe filled and overset, by which we lost several barrels of provisions, a number of guns, some clothes and cash.”
Although some had turned back, the remainder of the company continued on. The situation continued to deteriorate as noted in Arnold’s Journal on November 1st: “Continued our march through the woods — the marching this day exceedingly bad. This day I passed a number of soldiers who had ro provisions, and some that were sick, and not in my power to help or relieve them, except to encourage them. One or two dogs were killed, which the distressed soldiers eat with good appetite, even the feet and skins. This day, on our march upon the banks of the Chaudiere, we saw several boats, which were split upon the rocks, and one of Captain Morgan’s men was drowned. The travelling this day and yesterday very bad, over mountains and morasses.” The situation drastically improves when they met a colonial provisions supply on November 3rd.
During the latter part of November Arnold received communication that the British had abandoned Montreal, and Montgomery’s troops had taken control of the city. By the first of December Arnold’s troops joined together with Montgomery’s, On December 10th, they encountered the British near St. John’s Gate. Arnold reported: “The enemy began to cannonade our camp early in the morning, and continued it till night.” Both sides continued to fire upon each other, with Arnold recording each solider who was lost in his journal. Fighting continued steadily, and it was clear the men were battle weary. On December 16th he reported: “’This evening- a council was held by all the commission officers of Col. Arnold’s detachment, a large majority of which were for storming the garrison at Quebec, as soon as the men are provided with bayonets, spears, hatchets, and hand granades.” If they had not endured enough to that point, on December 20th, Arnold reported that a small-pox outbreak had begun.
The invasion began on December 31st, and Arnold recorded the plan in excruciating detail. Unfortunately, those details included his own injury, as well as the death of General Montgomery. With uncharacteristic warmth, Arnold wrote: “His death, though honourable, is lamented, not only as the death of an amiable, worthy friend, but as an experienced, brave general; whose country suffers greatly by such a loss at this time.”
While it is said that his bravery during the Quebec campaign earned him the nickname of “Hannibal”, more than 500 of his original 700 men either died or abandoned him. Although promoted to a brigadier general for his bravery, Arnold’s forces hastily retreated from battles near Montreal to Lake Champlain. In another seemingly impulsive act, Arnold and his men stopped at Lake Champlain, build what some have called an “impromptu fleet” which must have truly been a sight to see, and ultimately were defeated by the British after a seven hour battle. The battle was important because it slowed the British forces march toward New York. For that, he is sometimes referred to as the “Father of the United States Navy,” which I think is most certainly a slight to both John Paul Jones and John Barry who both are frequently given that title. After another hasty retreat, Arnold was again defeated at the Battle of Valcour Island.
Although Arnold was always viewed positively by Washington, his argumentative nature alienated many of the other Continental Army’s lead officers, as well as in Congress. This led to others being chosen for prime appointments which furthered Arnold’s resentment and anger.
In the next edition, we will continue to examine the life of Benedict Arnold, how many of the personality traits and patterns deepened, how they ultimately led to his betrayal of his country, and how that betrayal involved the Great Chain we learned about in the 16th edition of American History for the Modern Patriot.
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